In this module, we will look at the “ternary operator”, a very efficient shortcut to perform a logical test in a single line. This is a construct we will use quite a lot to express both possible outcomes of a conditional expression using a single line!

Based on what we have seen in the previous modules, the way to store different values in a variable according to some condition we set would be to write something like:

```
x::Float64 = 0.0
if rand() < 0.5
x = 0.25
else
x = 0.75
end
```

```
0.25
```

In the words of Stephen King, “it goes somewhere, but it ain’t, you know,
*boss*”. Thankfully there is a way to simplify this expression greatly, and it
does of course involve learning some more operators.

But before we start doing this, as a little bit of recall from the previous module, note that we can do the same thing with short-circuit operators:

```
x = 0.75
rand() < 0.5 && (x = 0.25)
```

```
false
```

But there is a reason why we don’t do everything we technically can, and in this instance,
the reason is that this notation is absolutely vile. So we will address our problem in
a more elegant way, using the *ternary operator*:

```
x = rand() < 0.5 ? 0.25 : 0.75
```

```
0.75
```

This little `=`

/`?`

/`:`

sequence is called a ternary operator. The basic syntax is `condition ? if true : if false`

. It fits in a single line, and we can handle both cases. Note that
the cases are *returned* as a function of whether the condition is satisfied,
which is a way to rapidly give a value to a variable.

Another source of efficiency is that both sides of the `:`

are *not*
evaluated, unlike other languages:

```
true ? print(2) : print(3)
```

```
2
```

We can check this using the `@lower`

macro from Meta: it is translating
*Julia* code into something of a lower-level, and is an interesting
opportunity to check what is going on “under the hood”:

```
Meta.@lower true ? cos(4) : sin(3)
```

```
:($(Expr(:thunk, CodeInfo(
@ none within `top-level scope`
1 ─ goto #3 if not true
2 ─ %2 = cos(4)
└── return %2
3 ─ %4 = sin(3)
└── return %4
))))
```

We see in the output above that the *operations* (like `cos(4)`

) have *not*
been expanded yet – the ternary operator is “pointing” *Julia* towards the
right branch.

We can use the ternary operator as the most basic ingredient in a very naive function that reproduces the Kronecker $\delta$ function: it returns 1 if the two inputs are equal, and 0 if they are not. This function is generally applied to non-negative integers.

`false`

*is*0 and

`true`

*is*1, and our function is not necessary. Nevertheless, this is an interesting example to write from scratch:

```
function δ(i::T, j::T) where {T <: Integer}
return i == j ? one(T) : zero(T)
end
```

```
δ (generic function with 1 method)
```

We can see what our function would do when applied to actual numbers:

```
for i in 1:3, j in 1:3
@info "δ($(i), $(j)) = $(δ(i, j))"
end
```

```
[ Info: δ(1, 1) = 1
[ Info: δ(1, 2) = 0
[ Info: δ(1, 3) = 0
[ Info: δ(2, 1) = 0
[ Info: δ(2, 2) = 1
[ Info: δ(2, 3) = 0
[ Info: δ(3, 1) = 0
[ Info: δ(3, 2) = 0
[ Info: δ(3, 3) = 1
```